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AC-11 (study details)

  • DATA-1 Enhancement of DNA repair – Restorative effect on the UV-induced DNA damage in skin cells

  • DATA-2 Enhancement of DNA repair – Promotion of DNA repair by oral administration

  • DATA-3 Enhancement of DNA repair – Evaluation of DNA repair activity and safety

  • DATA-4 UV skin damage – Effect of sunscreen cream containing AC-11 against sunburn and erythema formation

  • DATA-5 Effects on NF-κB activity and cell cycle – Repression of cell division and NF-κB activity

  • DATA-6 Promotion of selective production of type III collagen

  • DATA-7 Other studies

    • Evaluation of immunity activation effect and safety

    • Effect to suppress apoptosis of normal immune cells

    • Effect on the persistence of response to pneumococcal vaccine treatment

    • Effect on chemotherapy-induced leukopenia

    • Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells

    
DATA-1
Enhancement of DNA repair – Restorative effect on the UV-induced DNA damage in skin cells (in vitro) [Research center: Lund University]
Summary
  1. Three-dimensional human skin tissue models with and without the addition of AC-11 were irradiated with ultraviolet rays

  2. The occurrence of DNA damage was measured immediately after irradiation.

  3. After skin cells were incubated for a period (repair time), the occurrence of DNA damage was monitored again.

 

* Measurements were made using thymine dimers (certain changes in DNA bases) as an indicator of DNA damage.

Results

DNA damage was found after UV irradiation with or without AC-11. However, the skin cells in the AC-11 arm showed reduction of DNA damage after a certain period of time. AC-11 is expected to prevent UV-induced skin impairment through its effectiveness in repairing damaged DNA.

 

Ref: MammoneT, et al. Phytother Res. 2006 Mar; 20(3):178-83.

DATA-2
Enhancement of DNA repair – Promotion of DNA repair by oral administration (human study) [Research center: Lund University]
Summary
  1. Normal volunteers were treated with AC-11 for 8 weeks.

  2. Blood samples were obtained before and after administration and tested for DNA damage under oxidative stress (H2O2).

  3. DNA damage in white blood cells was measured after exposure to oxidative stress and after subsequent incubation (repair) for a period.

 

※DNA strand breaks were assessed by the alkaline elution method.

Results

The subjects treated with AC-11 showed significantly higher DNA repair capacity than the control subjects.

The oral administration of AC-11 is expected to be effective in promoting the repair of damaged DNA.

 

Ref: Sheng Y, et al. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jul; 8(4):275-82.

DATA-3
Enhancement of DNA repair – Evaluation of DNA repair activity and safety (in vivo) [Research center: Lund University]
Summary
  1. Rats were treated with AC-11 for 8 weeks.

  2. The rats were then exposed to radiation. Spleen cells were taken after 3 hours and tested for DNA damage.

 

* DNA strand breaks were assessed by the alkaline elution method.

Results

The rats treated with oral administration showed enhanced DNA repair function.

Oral AC-11 is expected to enhance DNA repair activities in the body.

 

Ref: Y Sheng, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Feb; 69(2):115-26.

DATA-4
UV skin damage – Effect of sunscreen cream containing AC-11 against sunburn and erythema formation (human study)
Summary

A sunscreen cream containing AC-11 (SPF 15) and a similar cream without AC-11 (SPF 15) were tested. Forty-two volunteer subjects received topical application of these creams and were exposed to sunlight for a period. The skin areas treated with sunscreen creams with and without AC-11 on each subject were inspected.

Results

Significant improvement was seen regarding erythema formation and blistering (p<0.0001).

The application of AC-11 is expected to prevent skin damage caused by sunburn.

Oral AC-11 is expected to enhance DNA repair activities in the body.

 

Ref: Scheninfeld, Wachs 2005. Internal study

DATA-5
Effects on NF-κB activity and cell cycle – Repression of cell division and NF-κB activity (in vitro) [Research center: Lund University]
Summary

The effects of AC-11 on cell proliferation and NF-κB activity of human and mouse tumor cells were examined.

Results

AC-11 repressed the proliferation of lymphoma cells. In addition, it suppressed NF-κB activity. NF-κB is a molecule involved in the expression of various genes such as those regulating cell division. AC-11 is considered to affect the system controlling cell division through the adjustment of NF-κB activity.

 

Ref: Akesson C, et al. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Dec; 3(13-14):1889-900.

DATA-6
Promotion of selective production of type III collagen
Summary

The effectiveness of AC-11 in promoting the synthesis of type III collagen was examined in ex vivo studies using human skin tissues. Sections of human skin tissues were maintained for 10 days in the presence and absence of AC-11. In the presence of AC-11, type III collagen increased by 469% on Day 10 relative to Day 0.

Results

The shift of collagen composition toward the increase in type III collagen is expected to improve wrinkles, sagging, and other signs of skin deterioration, leading to a soft, supple skin.

DATA-7
Other studies

Evaluation of immunity activation effect and safety (in vivo)

Results: Improvement of immune functions through an increase in the number of immune cells is expected.

Ref: Y Sheng, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Feb; 69(2):115-26.

 

 

Effect to suppress apoptosis of normal immune cells (in vivo and in vitro)

Discussion: The suppression of apoptosis of normal immune cells is considered to increase the number of immune cells.

Ref: Akesson Ch, et al. Phytomedicine.2003 Jan;10(1):23-33.

 

 

Effect on the persistence of response to pneumococcal vaccine treatment (in vivo)

Discussion: Oral AC-11 is expected to prolong the effect of vaccine treatment.

Ref: Lamm S, et al. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jul; 8(4):267-74.

 

 

Effect on chemotherapy-induced leukopenia (in vivo)

Discussion: The multiplication of leukocytes (immune cells) caused by oral AC-11 is considered to induce activation of immunity.

Ref: Sheng Y, et al. Phytomedicine. 2000 Apr; 7(2):137-43.

 

 

Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells (in vitro)

Discussion: AC-11 is considered to exert tumor cell growth inhibition through its effect on the regulation of tumor cell apoptosis.

Ref: Sheng Y, et al. Anticancer Res. 1998 Sep-Oct; 18(5A):3363-8.